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Energy
J (Joules)
 Scale of some things Landmarks Mass
[ Scale | Other ]

 Rough Draft

The universe's massergy comes in two forms, the dense matter, and the very-not-dense energy. We use mass (kg) to count matter, and energy (Joules, J) to count energy.

## Conversions

unitjoules
W·s100exactwatt second
W·h104 × 0.36exactwatt hour
kW·h107 × 0.36exactkilowatt hour
Btu103 × 1.055±<1%there are a couple of flavors
Btu103 × 1.05±1%
Btu103-6%, ±1%
kilocalorie104 × 0.42+<1%
calorie101 × 0.42+<1%, ±<1%various flavors
calorie101 × 0.4-5%
calorie101+×1.5
ton TNT1010 × 0.42+<1%
ton TNT1010 × 0.4-4%
eV10-19 × 1.6-<1%electron volt
hc10-25 × 2+<1%unit wave number (?)
amu10-10 × 1.5+<1%
foot-pound100 × 1.36+<1%
foot-pound100 × 1.4+4%
foot-poundal10-1 × 0.42-<1%
term108 × 1.06-<1%
term108-5%
erg10-7exact
default: [1]
[2] N's scales

## Various forms

 Joule (m2·kg·s-2) Energy. The potential to do work. Often a potential field with something to ready to fall through it. force·distance (m·kg·s-2)·(m) A weight waiting to fall some distance. mass·accel·distance (kg)·(m·s-2)·(m) A mass, trying to accelerate, lifted for some distance, and thus ready to fall. mass·velocity2 (kg)·(m·s-1)2 (kg)·(m2·s-2) A mass in motion, reluctant to stop. mass·c2 (kg)·(m·s-1)2 Conversion between the mass and energy flavors of massergy. W·s (m2·kg·s-3)·s Watt·second: Some time's worth of power. V·A (m2·kg·s-2·A-1)·(A) Volt·Amp: Some electrons (a current), upstream in a voltage (electric potential difference). Wb·A (m2·kg·s-2·A-1)·(A) Weber·Amp: Some electrons, upstream in the voltage created by some magnetic flux through the conductor. Pa·m3 (m-1·kg·s-2)·(m3) Pascal·volume: A hunk of some presure or stress. F-1·C2 (m-2·kg-1·s4·A2)-1·(s·A)2 Coulombs2/Farads: A capacitor, of some roominess (F), with charge (C) stuffed in against itself.

 A View from the Back of the Envelope Comments encouraged. - Mitchell N Charity

## Notes

```Currently in pre-first-draft state...
Notes:
nuclear phase transition requires particle energy order 2 GeV [AmSci '98 SepOct p449]
Right on edge of oom 1e-9 J.  If turns out to be <2 GeV, should be 1e-10 J.
I'm not clear on how speculative this model is.  Could check this.
nucleon excitations: delta 290 MeV, N* 500 MeV [AmSci v86 '98 SepOct p451]

Doables:
What a mess.
reorganize pages
backfill derivations
drop 1kg n m
water boiling freezing
your thermal, spinning rotational?, n-story grav potential
room ...
cooking
molecule at nK, thermal in general
magnetic
photon flashlight, sun
joule outward conversions ala Cow?
unit decomposition clusting description
a 10-watt night light produces 10 joules per second
twinky
nuclear density critical-point 0.05 nucleons/fermi^3 at T of ~14 MeV.
liquid-gas coexistence roughly ~0.09 to ~0.15 below ~10 MeV. [AmSci v86 98sepOct p451]
[AJP v60n6 Jun92 pg576]
1 jelly donut (JD) = 106 J
1 kWh = 3.6 JD
1 flashlight battery (D cell) = 1.6 × 104 J = 0.016 JD
1 mosquito pushup = 1 erg = 10-13 JD
1 barrel of oil = 6 × 109 J = 6000 JD
1 pizza (p) = 107 J = 10 JD (medium, with sausage and pepperoni)
1 Pizza (P) = 1017 J = 1011 JD (one-half of the energy released
in the annihilation of a pizza and an antipizza)
```
```[The next few links, to the 1996 CIA factbook, are broken.
The current factbook is here.]
From [World Factbook 1996]:
world Electricity:
capacity: 2,773,000,000 kW (ie 2.8e12)
production: 11.601 trillion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,937 kWh (1993)
US Electricity:
capacity: 695,120,000 kW (ie 0.70e12)
production: 3.1 trillion kWh
consumption per capita: 11,236 kWh (1993)

Metabolism of glucose quoted as 686 kcal/mol.  Sigh.  Ok...
mol is 6.022 × 1023 molecules, and kcal is 4184 J.
So metabolism of a glucose molecule yeilds 0.4766 × 10-17 J.

US per capita primary energy consuption is ~220 million Btu.
specific heat capacity (J/kgK) water 4200 J/kgK.  (3000 soup)
thermal potato (warm hands, high water content)
population density vs gasoline consumption[link broken]
```
```History: